bisulfite sequencing Archives - Episona
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Methylation analysis of histone H4K12ac-associated promoters in sperm of healthy donors and subfertile patients
Mar 2015 -|Clinical Epigenetics
Markus Vieweg, Katerina Dvorakova-Hortova, Barbora Dudkova, Przemyslaw Waliszewski, Marie Otte, Berthold Oels, Amir Hajimohammad, Heiko Turley, Martin Schorsch, Hans-Christian Schuppe, Wolfgang Weidner, Klaus Steger, Agnieszka Paradowska-Dogan
Histone to protamine exchange and the hyperacetylation of the remaining histones are hallmarks of spermiogenesis. Acetylation of histone H4 at lysine 12 (H4K12ac) was observed prior to full decondensation of sperm chromatin after fertilization suggesting an important role for the regulation of gene expression in early embryogenesis. Similarly, DNA methylation may contribute to gene silencing of several developmentally important genes. <!--more-->Following the identification of H4K12ac-binding promoters in sperm of fertile and subfertile patients, we aimed to investigate whether the depletion of histone-binding is associated with aberrant DNA methylation in sperm of subfertile men. Furthermore, we monitored the transmission of H4K12ac, 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) from the paternal chromatin to the embryo applying mouse in vitro fertilization and immunofluorescence. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) with anti-H4K12ac antibody was performed with chromatin isolated from spermatozoa of subfertile patients with impaired sperm chromatin condensation assessed by aniline blue staining. Fertile donors were used as control. DNA methylation analysis of selected H4K12ac-interacting promoters in spermatozoa was performed by pyrosequencing. Depletion of binding sites for H4K12ac was observed within the following developmentally important promoters: AFF4, EP300, LRP5, RUVBL1, USP9X, NCOA6, NSD1, and POU2F1. We found 5% to 10% hypomethylation within CpG islands of selected promoters in the sperm of fertile donors, and it was not significantly altered in the subfertile group. Our results demonstrate that the H4K12ac depletion in selected developmentally important promoters of subfertile patients was not accompanied by a change of DNA methylation. Using a murine model, immunofluorescence revealed that H4K12ac co-localize with 5mC in the sperm nucleus. During fertilization, when the pronuclei are formed, the paternal pronucleus exhibits a strong acetylation signal on H4K12, while in the maternal pronucleus, there is a permanent increase of H4K12ac until pronuclei fusion. Simultaneously, there is an increase of the 5hmC signal and a decrease of the 5mC signal. We suggest that aberrant histone acetylation within developmentally important gene promoters in subfertile men, but not DNA methylation, may reflect insufficient sperm chromatin compaction affecting the transfer of epigenetic marks to the oocyte.
Alterations in sperm DNA methylation patterns at imprinted loci in two classes of infertility
Oct 2010 - Fertil Steril
Saher Sue Hammoud, Jahnvi Purwar, Christian Pflueger, Bradley R. Cairns, Douglas T. Carrell
To evaluate the associations between proper protamine incorporation and DNA methylation at imprinted loci. Three populations were tested-abnormal protamine patients, oligozoospermic patients, and fertile donors. The CpG methylation patterns were examined at seven imprinted loci sequenced: LIT1, MEST, SNRPN, PLAGL1, PEG3, H19, and IGF2. <!--more-->The DNA methylation patterns were analyzed using bisulfite sequencing. The percentage of methylation was compared between fertile and infertile patients displaying abnormal protamination. At six of the seven imprinted genes, the overall DNA methylation patterns at their respective differentially methylated regions were significantly altered in both infertile patient populations. When comparing the severity of methylation alterations among infertile patients, the oligozoospermic patients were significantly affected at mesoderm-specific transcript (MEST), whereas abnormal protamine patients were affected at KCNQ1, overlapping transcript 1 (LIT1), and at small nuclear ribonucleoprotein polypeptide N (SNRPN). Patients with male factor infertility had significantly increased methylation alteration at six of seven imprinted loci tested, with differences in significance observed between oligozoospermic and abnormal protamine patients. This could suggest that risk of transmission of epigenetic alterations may be different with diagnoses. However, this study does not provide a causal link for epigenetic inheritance of imprinting diseases, but does show significant association between male factor infertility and alterations in sperm DNA methylation at imprinted loci.
Disruption of histone methylation in developing sperm impairs offspring health transgenerationally
Nov 2015 - Science
Keith Siklenka, Serap Erkek, Maren Godmann, Romain Lambrot, Serge McGraw, Christine Lafleur, Tamara Cohen, Jianguo Xia, Matthew Suderman, Michael Hallett, Jacquetta Trasler, Antoine H. F. M. Peters, Sarah Kimmins
A father's lifetime experiences can be transmitted to his offspring to affect health and development. However, the mechanisms underlying paternal epigenetic transmission are unclear. Unlike in somatic cells, there are few nucleosomes in sperm, and their function in epigenetic inheritance is unknown. <!--more-->We generated transgenic mice in which overexpression of the histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) demethylase KDM1A (also known as LSD1) during spermatogenesis reduced H3K4 dimethylation in sperm. KDM1A overexpression in one generation severely impaired development and survivability of offspring. These defects persisted transgenerationally in the absence of KDM1A germline expression and were associated with altered RNA profiles in sperm and offspring. We show that epigenetic inheritance of aberrant development can be initiated by histone demethylase activity in developing sperm, without changes to DNA methylation at CpG-rich regions.
Methylation of the Gpat2 promoter regulates transient expression during mouse spermatogenesis
Oct 2015 - Biochem J
Maria B. Garcia-Fabiani, Mauro A. Montanaro, Ezequiel Lacunza, Elizabeth R. Cattaneo, Rosalind A. Coleman, Magali Pellon-Maison, Maria R. Gonzalez-Baro
Spermatogenesis is a highly regulated process that involves both mitotic and meiotic divisions, as well as cellular differentiation to yield mature spermatozoa from undifferentiated germinal stem cells. Although Gpat2 was originally annotated as encoding a glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase by sequence homology to Gpat1, GPAT2 is highly expressed in testis but not in lipogenic tissues and is not up-regulated during adipocyte differentiation. New data show that GPAT2 is required for the synthesis of piRNAs (piwi-interacting RNAs), a group of small RNAs that protect the germ cell genome from retrotransposable elements. <!--more-->In order to understand the relationship between GPAT2 and its role in the testis, we focused on Gpat2 expression during the first wave of mouse spermatogenesis. Gpat2 expression was analysed by qPCR (quantitative real-time PCR), in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Gpat2 mRNA content and protein expression were maximal at 15 dpp (days post-partum) and were restricted to pachytene spermatocytes. To achieve this transient expression, both epigenetic mechanisms and trans-acting factors are involved. In vitro assays showed that Gpat2 expression correlates with DNA demethylation and histone acetylation and that it is up-regulated by retinoic acid. Epigenetic regulation by DNA methylation was confirmed in vivo in germ cells by bisulfite sequencing of the Gpat2 promoter. Consistent with the initiation of meiosis at 11 dpp, methylation decreased dramatically. Thus, Gpat2 is expressed at a specific stage of spermatogenesis, consistent with piRNA synthesis and meiosis I prophase, and its on–off expression pattern responds predominantly to epigenetic modifications.
Abnormal methylation of imprinted genes in human sperm is associated with oligozoospermia
Feb 2008 - Mol Hum Reprod
C.J. Marques, P. Costa, B. Vaz, F. Carvalho, S. Fernandes, A. Barros, M. Sousa
Genomic imprinting marks in the male germ line are already established in the adult germinal stem cell population. We studied the methylation patterns of H19 and MEST imprinted genes in sperm of control and oligozoospermic patients, by bisulphite genomic sequencing. We here report that 7 out of 15 (46.7%) patients with a sperm count below 10 x 10(6)/ml display defective methylation of H19 and/or MEST imprinted genes. In these cases, hypomethylation was observed in 5.54% (1.2-8.3%) and complete unmethylation in 2.95% (0-5.9%) of H19 clones. <!--more-->Similarly, for the CTCF-binding site 6, hypomethylation occurred in 4.8% (1.2-8.9%) and complete unmethylation in 3.7% (0-6.9%) of the clones. Conversely, hypermethylation occurred in 8.3% (3.8-12.2%) and complete methylation in 6.1% (3.8-7.6%) of MEST clones. Of the seven patients presenting imprinting errors, two had both H19 hypomethylation and MEST hypermethylation, whereas five displayed only one imprinted gene affected. The frequency of patients with MEST hypermethylation was highest in the severe oligozoospermia group (2/5 patients), whereas H19 hypomethylation was more frequent in the moderate oligozoospermia (2/5 patients). In all cases, global sperm genome methylation analysis (LINE1 transposon) suggested that defects were specific for imprinted genes. These findings could contribute to an explanation of the cause of Silver-Russell syndrome in children born with H19 hypomethylation after assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Additionally, unmethylation of the CTCF-binding site could lead to inactivation of the paternal IGF2 gene, and be linked to decreased embryo quality and birth weight, often associated with ART.
Idiopathic male infertility is strongly associated with aberrant methylation of MEST and IGF2/H19 ICR1
Aug 2010 - Int J Androl
Poplinski A, Tüttelmann F, Kanber D, Horsthemke B, Gromoll J
Aberrant imprinting in spermatozoa in a subset of infertile men has been postulated to be a risk factor for congenital diseases in children conceived via assisted reproduction techniques (ART). Studies in clinically well characterized large cohorts, however, have been missing. Using bisulfite sequencing, we determined the degree of methylation of the IGF2/H19 imprinting control region 1 (ICR1) and MEST differentially methylated regions in swim-up purified spermatozoa from 148 idiopathic infertile men and 33 normozoospermic controls. <!--more-->All control individuals had a high degree of IGF2/H19 ICR1 and a low degree of MEST methylation. Low sperm counts were clearly associated with IGF2/H19 ICR1 hypomethylation and, even stronger, with MEST hypermethylation. MEST hypermethylation, but not IGF2/H19 ICR1 hypomethylation was found in idiopathic infertile men with progressive sperm motility below 40% and bad sperm morphology below 5% normal spermatozoa. Ageing could be ruled out as a cause for the observed methylation defects. Sequence analysis of the CTCFL gene in peripheral blood DNA from 20 men with severe methylation defects revealed several polymorphisms, but no bona fide mutation. We conclude that idiopathic male infertility is strongly associated with imprinting defects at IGF2/H19 ICR1 and MEST, with aberrant MEST methylation being a strong indicator for sperm quality. The male germ cell thus represents a potential source for aberrant epigenetic features in children conceived via ART.
Obesity and Bariatric Surgery Drive Epigenetic Variation of Spermatozoa in Humans
Dec 2015 - Cell Metab
Ida Donkin, Soetkin Versteyhe, Lars R. Ingerslev, Kui Qian, Mie Mechta, Loa Nordkap, Brynjulf Mortensen, Emil Vincent R. Appel, Niels Jørgensen, Viggo B. Kristiansen, Torben Hansen, Christopher T. Workman, Juleen R. Zierath, Romain Barrès
Obesity is a heritable disorder, with children of obese fathers at higher risk of developing obesity. Environmental factors epigenetically influence somatic tissues, but the contribution of these factors to the establishment of epigenetic patterns in human gametes is unknown. Here, we hypothesized that weight loss remodels the epigenetic signature of spermatozoa in human obesity. <!--more-->Comprehensive profiling of the epigenome of sperm from lean and obese men showed similar histone positioning, but small non-coding RNA expression and DNA methylation patterns were markedly different. In a separate cohort of morbidly obese men, surgery-induced weight loss was associated with a dramatic remodeling of sperm DNA methylation, notably at genetic locations implicated in the central control of appetite. Our data provide evidence that the epigenome of human spermatozoa dynamically changes under environmental pressure and offers insight into how obesity may propagate metabolic dysfunction to the next generation.