environmental factors Archives - Episona
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Obesity and Bariatric Surgery Drive Epigenetic Variation of Spermatozoa in Humans
Feb 2016 | Cell Metabolism
Ida Donkin, Soetkin Versteyhe, Lars R. Ingerslev, Kui Qian, Mie Mechta, Loa Nordkap, Brynjulf Mortensen, Emil Vincent R. Appel, Niels Jørgensen, Viggo B. Kristiansen, Torben Hansen, Christopher T. Workman, Juleen R. Zierath, Romain Barrès
Obesity is a heritable disorder, with children of obese fathers at higher risk of developing obesity. Environmental factors epigenetically influence somatic tissues, but the contribution of these factors to the establishment of epigenetic patterns in human gametes is unknown. Here, we hypothesized that weight loss remodels the epigenetic signature of spermatozoa in human obesity. <!--more-->Comprehensive profiling of the epigenome of sperm from lean and obese men showed similar histone positioning, but small non-coding RNA expression and DNA methylation patterns were markedly different. In a separate cohort of morbidly obese men, surgery-induced weight loss was associated with a dramatic remodeling of sperm DNA methylation, notably at genetic locations implicated in the central control of appetite. Our data provide evidence that the epigenome of human spermatozoa dynamically changes under environmental pressure and offers insight into how obesity may propagate metabolic dysfunction to the next generation.
Methylation status of imprinted genes and repetitive elements in sperm DNA from infertile males
Mar 2011 - Sex Dev
El Hajj N., Zechner U., Schneider E., Tresch A., Gromoll J., Hahn T., Schorsch M., Haaf T.
Stochastic, environmentally and/or genetically induced disturbances in the genome-wide epigenetic reprogramming processes during male germ-cell development may contribute to male infertility. To test this hypothesis, we have studied the methylation levels of 2 paternally (H19 and GTL2) and 5 maternally methylated (LIT1, MEST, NESPAS, PEG3, and SNRPN) imprinted genes, as well as of ALU and LINE1 repetitive elements in 141 sperm samples, which were used for assisted reproductive technologies (ART), including 106 couples with strictly male-factor or combined male and female infertility and 28 couples with strictly female-factor infertility. Aberrant methylation imprints showed a significant association with abnormal semen parameters, but did not seem to influence ART outcome. <!--more-->Repeat methylation also differed significantly between sperm samples from infertile and presumably fertile males. However, in contrast to imprinted genes, ALU methylation had a significant impact on pregnancy and live-birth rate in couples with male-factor or combined infertility. ALU methylation was significantly higher in sperm samples leading to pregnancy and live-birth than in those that did not. Sperm samples leading to abortions showed significantly lower ALU methylation levels than those leading to the birth of a baby.
Effects of increased paternal age on sperm quality, reproductive outcome and associated epigenetic risks to offspring
Apr 2015 - Reprod Biol Endocrinol
Rakesh Sharma, Ashok Agarwal, Vikram K Rohra, Mourad Assidi, Muhammad Abu-Elmagd, Rola F Turki
Over the last decade, there has been a significant increase in average paternal age when the first child is conceived, either due to increased life expectancy, widespread use of contraception, late marriages and other factors. While the effect of maternal ageing on fertilization and reproduction is well known and several studies have shown that women over 35 years have a higher risk of infertility, pregnancy complications, spontaneous abortion, congenital anomalies, and perinatal complications. The effect of paternal age on semen quality and reproductive function is controversial for several reasons. <!--more-->First, there is no universal definition for advanced paternal ageing. Secondly, the literature is full of studies with conflicting results, especially for the most common parameters tested. Advancing paternal age also has been associated with increased risk of genetic disease. Our exhaustive literature review has demonstrated negative effects on sperm quality and testicular functions with increasing paternal age. Epigenetics changes, DNA mutations along with chromosomal aneuploidies have been associated with increasing paternal age. In addition to increased risk of male infertility, paternal age has also been demonstrated to impact reproductive and fertility outcomes including a decrease in IVF/ICSI success rate and increasing rate of preterm birth. Increasing paternal age has shown to increase the incidence of different types of disorders like autism, schizophrenia, bipolar disorders, and childhood leukemia in the progeny. It is thereby essential to educate the infertile couples on the disturbing links between increased paternal age and rising disorders in their offspring, to better counsel them during their reproductive years.
Obesity and Bariatric Surgery Drive Epigenetic Variation of Spermatozoa in Humans
Dec 2015 - Cell Metab
Ida Donkin, Soetkin Versteyhe, Lars R. Ingerslev, Kui Qian, Mie Mechta, Loa Nordkap, Brynjulf Mortensen, Emil Vincent R. Appel, Niels Jørgensen, Viggo B. Kristiansen, Torben Hansen, Christopher T. Workman, Juleen R. Zierath, Romain Barrès
Obesity is a heritable disorder, with children of obese fathers at higher risk of developing obesity. Environmental factors epigenetically influence somatic tissues, but the contribution of these factors to the establishment of epigenetic patterns in human gametes is unknown. Here, we hypothesized that weight loss remodels the epigenetic signature of spermatozoa in human obesity. <!--more-->Comprehensive profiling of the epigenome of sperm from lean and obese men showed similar histone positioning, but small non-coding RNA expression and DNA methylation patterns were markedly different. In a separate cohort of morbidly obese men, surgery-induced weight loss was associated with a dramatic remodeling of sperm DNA methylation, notably at genetic locations implicated in the central control of appetite. Our data provide evidence that the epigenome of human spermatozoa dynamically changes under environmental pressure and offers insight into how obesity may propagate metabolic dysfunction to the next generation.
Epigenetics and male reproduction: the consequences of paternal lifestyle on fertility, embryo development, and children lifetime health
Nov 2015 - Clin Epigenetics
Liborio Stuppia, Marica Franzago, Patrizia Ballerini, Valentina Gatta, Ivana Antonucci
The correlation between epigenetics and human reproduction represents a very interesting field of study, mainly due to the possible transgenerational effects related to epigenetic modifications of male and female gametes. In the present review, we focused our attention to the role played by epigenetics on male reproduction, evidencing at least four different levels at which sperm epigenetic modifications could affect reproduction: (1) spermatogenesis failure; (2) embryo development; (3) outcome of assisted reproduction technique (ART) protocols, mainly as concerning genomic imprinting; and (4) long-term effects during the offspring lifetime. <!--more-->The environmental agents responsible for epigenetic modifications are also examined, suggesting that the control of paternal lifestyle prior to conception could represent in the next future a novel hot topic in the management of human reproduction.
Genome-wide sperm DNA methylation changes after 3 months of exercise training in humans
Apr 2015 - Epigenomics
Joshua Denham, Brendan J. O’Brien, Jack T. Harvey, Fadi J. Charchar
DNA methylation programs gene expression and is involved in numerous biological processes. Accumulating evidence supports transgenerational inheritance of DNA methylation changes in mammals via germ cells. Our aim was to determine the effect of exercise on sperm DNA methylation. <!--more-->Twenty-four men were recruited and assigned to an exercise intervention or control group. Clinical parameters were measured and sperm samples were donated by subjects before and after the 3-month time-period. Mature sperm global and genome-wide DNA methylation was assessed using an ELISA assay and the 450K BeadChip (Illumina). Global and genome-wide sperm DNA methylation was altered after 3 months of exercise training. DNA methylation changes occurred in genes related to numerous diseases such as schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease. Our study provides the first evidence showing exercise training reprograms the sperm methylome. Whether these DNA methylation changes are inherited to future generations warrants attention.
Paternal long-term exercise programs offspring for low energy expenditure and increased risk for obesity in mice
Oct 2015 - FASEB J
Alexander K. Murashov, Elena S. Pak, Michael Koury, Ajay Ajmera, Maneesh Jeyakumar, Matthew Parker, Oksana Williams, Jian Ding, Dianne Walters, P. Darrell Neufer
Obesity has more than doubled in children and tripled in adolescents in the past 30 yr. The association between metabolic disorders in offspring of obese mothers with diabetes has long been known; however, a growing body of research indicates that fathers play a significant role through presently unknown mechanisms. Recent observations have shown that changes in paternal diet may result in transgenerational inheritance of the insulin-resistant phenotype. <!--more-->Although diet-induced epigenetic reprogramming via paternal lineage has recently received much attention in the literature, the effect of paternal physical activity on offspring metabolism has not been adequately addressed. In the current study, we investigated the effects of long-term voluntary wheel-running in C57BL/6J male mice on their offspring's predisposition to insulin resistance. Our observations revealed that fathers subjected to wheel-running for 12 wk produced offspring that were more susceptible to the adverse effects of a high-fat diet, manifested in increased body weight and adiposity, impaired glucose tolerance, and elevated insulin levels. Long-term paternal exercise also altered expression of several metabolic genes, including Ogt, Oga, Pdk4, H19, Glut4, and Ptpn1, in offspring skeletal muscle. Finally, prolonged exercise affected gene methylation patterns and micro-RNA content in the sperm of fathers, providing a potential mechanism for the transgenerational inheritance. These findings suggest that paternal exercise produces offspring with a thrifty phenotype, potentially via miRNA-induced modification of sperm.
The epigenetic processes of meiosis in male mice are broadly affected by the widely used herbicide atrazine
Oct 2015 - BMC Genomics
Aurore Gely-Pernot, Chunxiang Hao, Emmanuelle Becker, Igor Stuparevic, Christine Kervarrec, Frédéric Chalmel, Michael Primig, Bernard Jégou, Fatima Smagulova
Environmental factors such as pesticides can cause phenotypic changes in various organisms, including mammals. We studied the effects of the widely used herbicide atrazine (ATZ) on meiosis, a key step of gametogenesis, in male mice. Gene expression pattern was analysed by Gene-Chip array. <!--more-->Genome-wide mapping of H3K4me3 marks distribution was done by ChIP-sequencing of testis tissue using Illumina technologies. RT-qPCR was used to validate differentially expressed genes or differential peaks. We demonstrate that exposure to ATZ reduces testosterone levels and the number of spermatozoa in the epididymis and delays meiosis. Using Gene-Chip and ChIP-Seq analysis of H3K4me3 marks, we found that a broad range of cellular functions, including GTPase activity, mitochondrial function and steroid-hormone metabolism, are affected by ATZ. Furthermore, treated mice display enriched histone H3K4me3 marks in regions of strong recombination (double-strand break sites), within very large genes and reduced marks in the pseudoautosomal region of X chromosome. Our data demonstrate that atrazine exposure interferes with normal meiosis, which affects spermatozoa production.